Transmission of the papilloma virus occurs by direct person-to-person sexual contact, whether anal, oral, or vaginal, or by using personal objects of someone with the infection.

The presence of the human papillomavirus has been found in algae and marine waters, without confirming the possibility of infecting them.

Both the woman and the man can have the virus and have no symptoms and therefore be carriers of the genital infection and infect their sexual partners.

This causes that the more sexual partners, the greater the risk of suffering some type of infection by the human papilloma virus.
Socially, there are groups with a high prevalence of infection: prostitutes, inmates, drug addicts, immunocompromised individuals such as persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), low socioeconomic status, or having multiple sexual partners.

The condom does not prevent infection by the human papilloma virus. Contagion can still occur using the condom since the virus is not transmitted by fluids, but by means of microlesions that are in contact with the virus. The warts or condylomas that are on the external genitalia and the friction of the act itself, are sufficient to be able to spread the virus.

The main route of transmission of the papilloma virus is by sexual contact. Probably due to minimal lesions of the skin or mucous membranes, mainly affecting the columnar squamous junction of the cervix and the pectine line of the anal canal.

The infection in the vagina is usually by sexual contact in asymptomatic microlesions. There is evidence of other forms of contagion, such as inadequately sterilized medical instruments and sex toys.

Fetal-maternal transmission has been documented at the time of delivery in cases of condyloma in the birth canal, which may lead to laryngeal papillomatosis in the newborn.This type of viral transmission is uncommon and is prevented by a cesarean section at the time of delivery.

Transmission to the foetus by amniotic fluid is unclear, but because of the size of HPV, it is believed that it could pass through the placental barrier and be transmitted to the fetus through the amniotic fluid.

Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx are mainly associated with excessive alcohol intake and smoking. However, HPV is associated with a large number of pathologies, especially the virus 16.

Not only does circumcision reduce the risk of HPV infection in men, it has also been shown to reduce the risk in the circumcised man’s partner of developing cervical cancer.

  • Papilloma virus has not been shown to be transmitted by:
  • Go to swimming pools, jacuzzis, gyms, or any kind of sport.
  • Do not get into toilets seats.
  • Kisses on the mouth.
  • Non-sexual contact with someone with the infection, such as hugging or touching.
  • Poor personal hygiene.
  • Share toys, food, or utensils from someone with the infection.
  • Human papillomavirus infections primarily transmitted through sexual contact.
  • Contaminated sex toys can transmit the virus.
  • Laryngeal papillomatosis in newborns or young children may be caused by contamination in the birth canal.
  • The use of condoms as a prophylactic for the transmission of HPV is not always effective.
    Although it is admitted that the correct use of the condom throughout the sexual act is a barrier to reduce the contagion.